The American Psychological Association, or APA, developed a standardized style for formatting all sources and references used in writing research papers, including APA interview citations. APA citations can be used to cite interviews, such as live, face-to-face, telephone and email conversations used for your research paper.
Interviews, however, are not considered archived, recoverable data. As a general rule, then, no personal communication is included in your reference list, and no interview sources should appear in your works cited page. Rather, you will either need to directly quote or paraphrase the passage into an in-text APA interview citation, which should only appear in the body of your document. Enclosed within parentheses, the APA interview citation consists of the interviewee’s surname and initials, the phrase “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.
If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your APA reference list, you may use the following APA citation examples as your guide:
For a personal interview by phone: (Branden, N. 2003, March 16. Telephone interview).
By email: (Branden, N. 2003, March 16. Email interview).
In person: (Branden, N. 2003, March 16. Personal interview).
If conducted by a third party: (Branden, N. 2003, March 16. Personal interview with D. Kelley & J. Nichols).
As exemplified above, the interview reference should be placed directly after the quote or paraphrased material, in the body of the work. The first and middle initials, the surname of the interviewer and date of the interview are included in the APA interview citation. Sometimes your instructor may not require you to specify the type of personal communication.
The APA Publication Manual does not include specific rules or guidelines about citing published interviews. If you want to use a published interview as one of your sources, add the required data about the interviewer in square brackets after the publication date in the APA citation, or, if you are citing the interview found in a periodical, after the title of the interview.