APA in text citations pertain to the sources and references that are cited and appear within the body of your research paper. When a source is first mentioned, whether it is a direct quote or a paraphrase of a given passage, it should be cited as part of the text. The APA in text citation consists of the source and the year of publication, enclosed in parentheses. For example:
Judged purely as a piece of literature, The Fountainhead is Ayn Rand’s best work. (Merrill, 1991).
The APA in text citation can also be written into a sentence, with the year of publication enclosed in parentheses:
… According to Merrill (1991), judged purely as a piece of literature, The Fountainhead is Ayn Rand’s best work. …
The APA format requires writers to abide by its standardized author-date method of citation. As exemplified above, the author’s last name and the year of the source’s publication should appear in the text. Likewise, a complete reference typed according to the APA format should be listed in the works cited page at the end of your research paper. For example:
Merrill, R. E. (1991). The Ideas of Ayn Rand. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.
Remember that if you want to refer to a section from a print source but not directly quoting the passage, or if you want to refer to an entire body of work, such as a book, a magazine article, or a news item, you only need to include the author’s last name and the year of publication in the in text citation, excluding page numbers. Conversely, if you are citing a passage by using direct quotes, you need to include the particular pages referred to in the APA in text citation. Each one of these citations that appear in the text must also be listed in the works cited page at the end of your paper.